2019-20 Expert Panel Activities
One of the goals of the project is to begin to compile an empirically grounded evidence base of "what works" for creating effective and engaging XR and immersive learning experiences. Please use this section to suggest and discuss relevant research of which you are aware or that you find throughout the duration of the Expert Panel activities.
- What are the key findings/outcomes of the research? What contribution(s) does it make to our understanding of “what works”?
- What evidence-based design principles, guidelines, and/or recommendations can be gleaned from the research?
- What are the implications for practice and for future research? Or more specifically: (a) Is the evidence sufficiently compelling to justify application of the principles/guidelines/recommendations, and in what situations/contexts; and (b) What questions remain unanswered or warrant further investigation?
A Comparison of learning gains when using a 2D simulation tool versus a 3D virtual world
The study compares the knowledge of students after a traditional classroom lecture about an animal behaviour theory known as Marginal Value Theorem (MVT), with their knowledge after they were exposed to simulations of two-dimensional models developed in NetLogo and three-dimensional models developed in Unity3D.
In two separate studies, 129 biology students explored MVT in six scenarios represented in 2D and 3D.Posttests measured learning gains compared to a pretest following traditional classroom presentation of the theory.2D simulations were modelled in NetLogo and 3D simulations used Unity3D.Perhaps due to cognitive overload and distraction-conflict theory, 2D Netlogo delivered better learning outcomes.
Perhaps due to cognitive overload and distractors in the virtual world, it appears that the two-dimensional NetLogo model delivered better learning outcomes.
Specifically, the 3D embodied representation of an animal (a deerlike character model) resulted in inaccurate knowledge abstraction and transfer, where students believed MVT only applied to mammals, whereas students using the 2D models (represented as directional arrowheads) were able to correctly apply the theory to other types of animals such as fish and birds.
Deborah Richards and Meredith Taylor. 2015. A Comparison of learning gains when using a 2D simulation tool versus a 3D virtual world. Comput. Educ. 86, C (August 2015), 157-171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.009
A Systematic Review of 10 Years of Augmented Reality Usability Studies: 2005 to 2014
Systematic review of 291 AR user studies from 2005 to 2014
– Recently, handheld devices are being used more in AR user studies.
– Despite the increase in the number of studies the percentage of user studies remains the same.
– The most common data collection method is questionnaires. This might lead to subjective measurements of some variables.
– Most of the participants in user studies are young students.
– The authors conclude that the median number of participants was 28 in AR user studies in education.
Implications for future research:
– More research is needed in the field of collaborative AR learning experiences.
– Other data collection methods apart from questionnaires should be used in future research studies.
– Future studies should consider a more diverse sample of participants apart from youg students.
A Taxonomy of Mixed Reality Visual Displays
Even though this article was published in 1994, the work done with regards to the mixed reality continuum is still be used today to situate different VR technologies and relate them with one another. The development of terminology is important as we need to define how they relate to one another. This article makes a very good basis for this discussion.
Adding immersive virtual reality to a science lab simulation causes more presence but less learning
The consequences of adding immersive virtual reality to a simulation was examined.
The impact of the level of immersion on the redundancy principle was investigated.
EEG was used to obtain a direct measure of cognitive processing during learning.
Students reported higher presence but learned less in the immersive VR condition.
Students also had higher cognitive load based on EEG in the immersive VR condition.
Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: A systematic review of the literature
Alt_C UK Jesse Stommel keynote
Revolutionising feedback for student success
In this keynote Jesse challenges tech educators to think meaningfully about our data, our students data, and the commercialisation of data. He calls out the product suppliers, and seeks a different way on ensuring the creators of data are recompensed.
Applications of Augmented Reality in Informal Science Learning Sites: a Review
Key findings based on a literature review of 17 articles in the topic of informal science education:
– A wide variety of the studies in science learning focused on topics about physics followed by life science topics.
– Although it has been reported that AR increases students’ learning outcomes in informal learning settings, increasing the level of interest and engagement is also a remarkable advantage in AR-based settings.
Implications for future research:
– Collaboration is an important aspect of engagement that needs to be taken into account in future AR developments.
– Further research should be conducted on the development guidelines or best practices for the development of AR apps in informal science evironments.
– To identify gender differences when interacting with AR technologies.
– More research is needed on what could make AR technology more inclusive.
– Focus on long-term learning outcomes and sustainability of achievement.
Augmented reality for STEM learning: A systematic review
This paper reports a systematic literature review of 28 journal articles published from 2010-2017 in the field of AR for STEM education.
Key findings based on a meta-analysis of 64 journal papers:
– In the field of STEM learning most of the AR studies focused on physics, mathematics and life sciences topics.
– Most of the interventions in life science topics were conducted with location-based AR while the interventions in physics and mathematics were conducted with image-based AR.
– AR is used in the context of STEM learning for : exploration, simulation and game-based activities.
– Most of the studies measured affective and cognitive outcomes in the contexts of cross-sectional studies.
Implications for future research:
– There is a need of including metacognitive scaffolding in future AR studies.
– Future studies should be conducted with more longitudinal interventions to evaluate learning effectiveness in the long-term and to avoid the effect of the novelty of the technology – Hawthorne effect.
– More research is needed to determine how AR can be effective for helping students to construct their knowledge
– More research is needed on collaborative AR learning activities.
– Explore the use of AR to support outdoor learning activities in the context of flipped classrooms.
– More research is needed to determine if AR can really decrease cognitive load or identify the real effect of AR on students’ cognitive load.
– More research is needed in the evaluation of AR for supporting scientific inquiry skills and collaborative specific competences.
– Future AR studies should focus on students with special educational needs or gifted students.
Augmented Reality for Teaching and Learning – A Literature Review on Theoretical and Empirical Foundations
This article reports a systematic literature review of 36 journal and conference articles on the theoretical and empirical foundations of AR in education.
– Most of the studies using AR have been conducted from the perspective of constructivist learning theories, followed by cognitive theories but the author did not find any article that uses behaviorist theories as the foundational theory of designing AR experiences.
– “Creating an effective learning experience might require to incorporate ideas from more than one learning theory” (Sommerauer & Müller, 2018).
– Most of the studies mesure the effect of AR on learning performance using: the number of fulfilled tasks in the application and the number of right/wrong answers in a time frame.
– As for the measures of user perception, the authors found that the following are the most common variables measured (from the most common to the less common): perceived usefulness, perceived learning, perceived satisfaction, usability testing.
– “A central aim of applying AR in learning environments is to turn simple learning into a motivational learning experience” (Sommerauer & Müller, 2018).
– The authors introduce a conceptual framework based on the idea that learning consists of one or more learning sequences that are linked to one or more learning theories.
– Very few articles report negative effects of using AR for learning. Any negative effect reported in the articles refers to side effects of AR.
Design principles / guidelines /recommendations:
In this review, the authors summarize some learning theories with a set of design elements for implementation for the following learning theories:
– Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning
– Mobile learning
– Game-based learning and simulation
– Expriential learning
– Situated learning
Implications for practice or future research:
– There is a need of research on how to support internal and external communication of the application with other technologies to allow the exchange of information collected from the learner and from the learning experience.
– Research on how to use xAPI for collecting data in AR learning experiences.
Citation or reference:
Sommerauer, Peter and Müller, Oliver, “AUGMENTED REALITY FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING – A LITERATURE REVIEW ON THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL FOUNDATIONS” (2018). Research Papers. 31. https://aisel.aisnet.org/ecis2018_rp/31
Augmented reality in education: a meta-review and cross-media analysis
This paper addresses Augmented Reality in Education by analyzing 26 publications that have previously compared student learning in AR versus non-AR applications. It identifies a list of positive and negative impacts of AR experiences on student learning and highlights factors that are potentially underlying these effects.
Augmented reality mobile app development for all
Lack of programming skills is a barrier to the engagement of teachers in the development and customisation of their own applications. Visual Environment for Designing Interactive Learning Scenarios (VEDILS), a visual tool for designing, customising and deploying learning technologies, provides teachers with a development environment with a low entry threshold. Current mobile devices are equipped with sensors and have sufficient processing power to use augmented reality technologies. Despite the heavy use of mobile devices in students’ lives, the use of augmented reality mobile applications as learning tools is not widespread among teachers. The current work presents a framework comprising the development tool and a method for designing and deploying learning activities. It focuses on the augmented reality components of the authoring tools, which allow users to create their own mobile augmented reality learning apps. It also present the results of the evaluation of the framework with 47 third-level educators, and two case studies of classroom implementations of mobile augmented reality apps developed by these educators. The results illustrate the suitability of the framework and authoring tool for supporting users without programming skills in developing their own apps.
Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school education: a systematic review of recent trends in augmented reality game‑based learning
A systematic literature review of 21 journal articles published between 2012 and 2017 in the topic of Augmented Reality Game-based Learning.
– Most of the studies in ARGBL have been conducted in the field of science in primary and secondary education.
– Most of the studies considered medium-sized research samples between 30 to 200 participants.
– Most of the studies considered mixed methods and comparative methods.
– The most common data collection method are questionnaires, interviews and surveys.
– Most of the studies with ARGBL in primary education report better students’ learning outcomes.
– The most common type of AR in ARGBL studies is marker-based AR.
– The most common limitation of ARGBL in that teachers cannot update the learning content in the application and that students pay too much attention to the virtual content.
– ARGBL might increase students learning performance and motivation.
– AR can be used to design different activities in different learning spaces such as fieldtrips, classroom, etc.
– Motivation and enrichment are the basis of ARGBL.
Implications for future research:
– There is a need of new methods for creating 3D content for the AR applications.
– There is a need of more authoring tools that allow teachers to create new content.
– Future research is needed in the field of user experience in ARGBL and knowledge construction processes in ARGBL.
Biomedical Visualisation (Book series)
Link is to first book in series. Contributions include many chapters on biomedical applications of VR, AR and XR, for healthcare, medical and clinical education, etc.
Building long-term empathy: A large-scale comparison of traditional and virtual reality perspective-taking
Authors: Herrera F, Bailenson J, Weisz E, Ogle E, Zaki J
Two studies measuring empathy, identification-of-self with, and demonstration of prosocial behaviour towards homeless persons. One study was somewhat longitudinal with measures at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after subjects had participated in either a VR-based perspective taking experience or a non-mediated, text-based perspective-taking experience (reading a first person narrative account) or simply read information about the group being embodied (homeless persons) and the second study compared the modalities with different degrees of immersion (fully immersive VR via headset, desktop VR and a non-immersive text-based first person perspective account) and the modality of a non-perspective taking and purely informational text-based content, to measure empathy and positive attitudes towards the group embodied or presented (homeless persons) after time had elapsed.
“found that over the course of eight weeks, participants who completed a VR perspective-taking task had more positive attitudes and” exhibited caring behaviour (“signed a petition supporting helpful initiatives toward the homeless) at significantly higher rates than the participants who just imagined what it would be like to become homeless or performed a less immersive perspective-taking task.”
“evidence suggesting that VR perspective-taking tasks may be more effective at improving attitudes toward specific social targets and motivating prosocial behaviors in the form of signed petitions in support of helpful initiatives than traditional and less immersive perspective-taking tasks.”
EVIDENCE-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS:
– although 8 weeks is not that long, this is one of the few longitudinal studies I have come across that seeks to measures the longer-term attitudinal / transformative effects of an immersive experience
– recommends that empathy towards the group (or characterization or situation in question) should be measured as a pre-test before having subjects experience the embodiment of the other’s perspective
– suggests and recommends further investigation of the effects of familiarity with the immersive technology being used on the effects (of empathy or attitude towards) being measured (i,e, “It is possible that the novelty of the equipment acted as a distraction and prevented participants from focusing on the experience itself, resulting in lower empathy and personal distress scores.” p. 30 of the downloaded PDF)
IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:
If transforming attitudes and increasing empathy are the goal, perspective-taking activities (embodying the perspective of another) can be effective and the more immersive they are the longer the transformed attitudes (or fostered empathy) seem to persist
Makes the explicit point that although an immersive experience of embodying another person’s perspective can increase empathy and alter attitudes it cannot provide a full understanding of the diversity of perspectives even within a specific group. This should be acknowledged and addressed in any follow-up learning /scaffolding activities. Also that such an experience at this point in the sophistication of the technology cannot be 100% as interactive as real life experiences (only some interactions will have been programmed). See supporting citation below:
“It is important to note that the VR experience used immersed participants in an environment specifically designed to provide a visceral experience of what it would be like to be homeless from the first person perspective. However, the VR experience lasted approximately 15 minutes and was not able to simulate some of the psychological and physiological burdens that homeless people experience (e.g., desperation or hunger). These limitations prevent participants from actually experiencing what it would be like to become homeless. Another limitation of the technology is that despite the high level of interactivity within the experience, it still did not allow to participants to interact with the virtual world the way they naturally interact with the real world.” p.31 of downloaded PDF).
Canadian Border Simulation at Loyalist College.
The aim of this paper is to describe the process and results of a Canadian border simulation run in Second Life for students at Loyalist College. Recent security restrictions at the Canadian border limit access for college students to serve their placement at the actual border, thus eliminating the possibility of first hand experience. Additionally, in class role-plays designed to practice border interview skills were not adequate to instill the interview process. Using Second Life to simulate the border environment and procedures allows students access to a simulated real life environment, and provides them with the sufficient real world practice they require to grasp and retain essential interview skills. The results of this learning experience translated into greater levels of confidence and significantly improved grades.
1. Use of XR can replicate situations where training would be otherwise impossible. In the Post 9/11 world, untrained border patrol officers cannot be within the border zone, yet how can they be trained on proper questioning technique? 2. Researchers used a standardized assessment item to determine adequacy of the training.
Guidelines or principles gleaned:
1.) for beginning research, it is valuable to compare learning outcomes with standardized tools first, before creating & using XR-based assessments.
2.) Use of XR does not need to be fantastical for workplace training. It can simply replicate the real world in a controlled environment.
I believe the best implication is that this research is foundational to our understanding that XR is a valid training environment.
Could the Virtual Dinosaur See You? Understanding Children’s Perceptions of Presence and Reality Distinction in Virtual Reality Environments
An interesting study on the effect of VR on children. The paper is on the most recent very good Impact issue of the Journal of Virtual World Research, edited by Michael Thomas, Tuncer Can, Michael Vallance.
D. Liu, C. Dede, R. Huang, & J. Richards, (Eds.). Virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed reality in education. Hong Kong: Springer.
This book includes multiple chapters with evidence-based findings about various types of XR in Education
Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters with Reality and Virtual Reality
A surprisingly interesting and very different perspective on VR technology written by Jaron Lanier, one of the Father’s of Virtual Reality. Although written in a biographical form, his experiences of working with and big ideas that are quite different than common opinions about VR are incredibly insightful. Available in audio form.
Bridging the gap between tech mania and the experience of being inside the human body, Dawn of the New Everything is a look at what it means to be human at a moment of unprecedented technological possibility.
Through a fascinating look back over his life in technology, Jaron Lanier, an interdisciplinary scientist and father of the term “virtual reality,” exposes VR’s ability to illuminate and amplify our understanding of our species, and gives readers a new perspective on how the brain and body connect to the world. An inventive blend of autobiography, science writing, philosophy and advice, this book tells the wild story of his personal and professional life as a scientist, from his childhood in the UFO territory of New Mexico, to the loss of his mother, the founding of the first start-up, and finally becoming a world-renowned technological guru.
Understanding virtual reality as being both a scientific and cultural adventure, Lanier demonstrates it to be a humanistic setting for technology. While his previous books offered a more critical view of social media and other manifestations of technology, in this book he argues that virtual reality can actually make our lives richer and fuller.
Developing 21st Century Competencies of Marginalized Students Through the Use of AR (Augmented Reality)
Wonderful case study, from Janette Hughes and Melanie Maas, documenting how “a small group of marginalized
grades 6, 7, and 8 students… explore[d] and create[d] augmented reality (AR) to produce a class
cookbook. We discuss how using AR helped students develop digital literacies skills and 21st century
competencies, while at the same time, integrating AR into the students’ life skills component of their
programming helped them also develop cooking skills and basic nutrition awareness.”
Development of a Patient-Specific 3D-Printed Liver Model for Preoperative Planning
A graspable, patient-specific, 3D printed model of liver structures could provide an improved understanding of the complex liver anatomy and better navigation in difficult areas and allow surgeons to anticipate anatomical issues that might arise during the operation. Further research into adequate imaging, liver-specific volumetric software, and segmentation algorithms are worth considering to optimize this application.
Evolution Is not enough: Revolutionizing Current Learning Environments to Smart Learning Environments
Advances in technology in recent years have changed the learning behaviors of learners and reshaped teaching methods. This had resulted in several challenges faced by current educational systems, such as an increased focus on informal learning, a growing gap of prior knowledge among students in classrooms and a mismatch between individual career choices and the development of the work force. This paper looks at these challenges with a view towards revolutionizing current learning environments to smart learning environments and provides new suggestions for technological solutions. Furthermore, this paper argues for a transformation from the current learning environments to smart learning environments. This is to be achieved by reengineering the fundamental structure and operations of current educational systems to better integrate these new technologies with the required pedagogical shift. The future perspectives of smart learning environments are reviewed and shared, through examples of emerging innovations such as the flipped classroom, game based learning, gesture based learning, along with pedagogical shifts, such as life-long learning portfolio maintenance, team teaching, and separation of learning and competency assessment.
FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN VIRTUAL WORLDS: THE CONSTRUCT OF AFFORDANCE
This chapter stems from a research study on the affordances of virtual worlds for FL learning. In the course of the study, the importance of a common, theoretically-supported conceptualisation of the construct of affordance was highlighted. It became clear that, in order to investigate language learning affordances in the field of ICT educational research and to move beyond a mere listing of potentials and negative aspects of these environments for learning, it is paramount that the construct of affordance is clearly conceptualised. This chapter frames what happens in the virtual word using Engeström’s Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and views language from an ecological perspective, as a process that happens through interaction, and as part of a broader context comprising social conditions and students’ concerns, attitudes and perceptions. The construct of affordance is subsequently rooted in this theoretical framework, and defined as an action in potential and a relation of possibilities between users. The operationalisation of the construct of affordance is then shown, using as an example the research study in question. Finally, a list of language affordances of virtual worlds that emerged from the study is presented
Gruzelier, J., Inoue, A., Smart, R., Steed, A., & Steffert, T. (2010). Acting performance and flow state enhanced with sensory-motor rhythm neurofeedback comparing ecologically valid immersive VR and training screen scenarios. Neuroscience Letters, 480(2), 112-116.
Comparison study of VR and 2D measuring transfer of learned knowledge to performance actors using EEG. Measures included Flow, Presence, Performance, Presence in Performance.
Heuristic evaluation of virtual reality applications
The article makes an attempt at developing a heuristic evaluation for VEs using Nielson’s usability heuristics. The value of that article is in the attempt to address “traditional” heuristics as well as concepts like presence. The attempt to measure these aspects is worth pursuing and this article is a good start.
How Immersive Is Enough? A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Immersive Technology on User Presence
Not all VR is created equal. For effective training/education to occur, it is important that the system works well enough to produce a close proxy to the real world. Not finding results of a study might be due to the system not being good enough (in addition to the design/experience/engagement etc needing to be effective but is not the purpose of this paper).
CUMMINGS, J. J., & BAILENSON, J. N. How Immersive Is Enough? A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Immersive Technology on User Presence.
Abstract: The concept of presence, or ‘‘being there’’ is a frequently emphasized factor in immersive mediated environments. It is often
assumed that greater levels of immersive quality elicit higher levels of presence, in turn enhancing the effectiveness of a mediated experience. To investigate this assumption the current metaanalysis synthesizes decades of empirical research examining the
effect of immersive system technology on user experiences of presence. Aggregating 115 effect sizes from 83 studies, it finds that
technological immersion has a medium-sized effect on presence.
Additionally, results show that increased levels of user-tracking,
the use of stereoscopic visuals, and wider fields of view of visual
displays are significantly more impactful than improvements to
most other immersive system features, including quality of visual
and auditory content. These findings are discussed in light of
theoretical accounts of the presence construct as well as practical
implications for design.
How Mobile Augmented Reality Is Applied in Education? A Systematic Literature Review
A systematic literature review of 57 journal and conference papers in the field of mobile augmented reality in education.
– Marker-based AR is still the most common type of AR used in education followed by location-based AR applications.
– Learning gains, motivation, acceptance, usability and engagement are the most common factors evaluated in interventions with mobile-AR applications.
– Research samples are around 60 participants and there is a lack of experimental studies.
– Between 2013 and 2017 there was a significant advance in the use of educational strategies in MAR approaches such as collaborative learning, multimedia learning, inquiry-based learning, etc.
– The review confirmed that the technical requirements are defined based on the expertise of the development team and is not based on the evidence of the effectiveness of each platform or SDK.
– Some studies did not report / did not apply a methodology for the development of the mobile AR application.
– Questionnaires are among the most common methods for data collection.
– The development of prototypes by people without technical knowledge could be a trend.
– Some studies use obsolete resources in the development of AR experiences so there is a need of developing new educational resources
Opportunities for further research:
– There is a need of more research on how to systematically develop and evaluate mobile AR applications.
– How to get data from the AR experience for the continuous improvement of the application?
– There is a need of frameworks of models for the evaluation of mobile AR applications.
Immersive Media and Child Development: Synthesis of a Cross-Sectoral Meeting on Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Reality and Young Children
What do we know about immersive media—virtual, augmented, mixed, and cross realities (VR, AR, MR, and XR)—and young children? So far, designers, developers, and media producers have been focusing on creating hardware, software, and content for and conducting studies with adolescents and adults—but children find these technologies incredibly appealing. How can we prepare for a future in which immersive media are readily available and a more common part of daily life?
On November 6-7, 2018, the Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop, the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University, and Dubit hosted the inaugural Future of Childhood Salon on Immersive Media and Child Development. Over the course of a day and a half, a cross-sectoral group of approximately 60 child development and media researchers, learning scientists, child health experts, hardware and content developers, educators, journalists, and funders examined these emerging media through various activities, organized around how to ensure VR, AR, MR, and XR are safe, engaging, and beneficial to children’s socio-emotional, cognitive, and physical development and learning.
This report synthesizes the proceedings of this event, in which participants discussed an agenda for needed research and considerations for responsible development of immersive experiences for children.
Immersive Virtual Environments and Learning Assessments
As suggested by Jonathon Richter, I am adding to Evidence Compiler this systematic literature review, presented at iLRN 2019, that gives a state-of-the-art overview of how learning assessments have been used in studies using Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and its applications in education.
Immersive Virtual Reality Field Trips Facilitate Learning About Climate Change
Across four studies, two controlled lab experiments and two field studies, we tested the efficacy of immersive Virtual Reality (VR) as an education medium for teaching the consequences of climate change, particularly ocean acidification. Over 270 participants from four different learning settings experienced an immersive underwater world designed to show the process and effects of rising sea water acidity. In all of our investigations, after experiencing immersive VR people demonstrated knowledge gains or inquisitiveness about climate science and in some cases, displayed more positive attitudes toward the environment after comparing pre- and post-test assessments. The analyses also revealed a potential post-hoc mechanism for the learning effects, as the more that people explored the spatial learning environment, the more they demonstrated a change in knowledge about ocean acidification. This work is unique by showing distinct learning gains or an interest in learning across a variety of participants (high school, college students, adults), measures (learning gain scores, tracking data about movement in the virtual world, qualitative responses from classroom teachers), and content (multiple versions varying in length and content about climate change were tested). Our findings explicate the opportunity to use immersive VR for environmental education and to drive information-seeking about important social issues such as climate change.
Immersive VR and education: Embodied design principles that include gesture and hand controls
This article explores relevant applications of educational theory for the design of immersive virtual reality (VR). Two unique attributes associated with VR position the technology to positively affect education: (1) the sense of presence, and (2) the embodied affordances of gesture and manipulation in the 3rd dimension. These are referred to as the two profound affordances of VR. The primary focus of this article is on the embodiment afforded by gesture in 3D for learning. The new generation of hand controllers induces embodiment and agency via meaningful and congruent movements with the content to be learned. Several examples of gesture-rich lessons are presented. The final section includes an extensive set of design principles for immersive VR in education, and finishes with the Necessary Nine which are hypothesized to optimize the pedagogy within a lesson.
In-Game: From Immersion to Incorporation
The book has interesting cross discipline discussions. The first chapter describes the concept of immersion and presence and tries to consolidate what VR research and game studies say about it. The player involvement model introduced by the work is also a valuable tool when designing and conceptualizing XR technology solutions that make use of virtual environments.
Integrating augmented reality into problem based learning: The effects on learning achievement and attitude in physics education
Year of publication: 2019
This paper reports a study on the effect of problem-based learning assisted AR on learning achievement and attitudes in the field of physics education. The sample size were 91 seventh grade students and a quasi-experimental research design was applied.
– When AR is used to support problem-based learning activities in the field of physics, students have higher learning achievements.
– Attitudes of students are also higher when the problem-based learning activities are supported with AR.
– The provision of immersive situations in well-designed AR applications positively affect the development of the students’ cognitive skills and the transfer of knowledge to real-world environments.
– AR might activate some cognitive processes in problem-based learning in physics education.
– It is important to stimulate all of the senses with the AR application.
– A theoretical model that integrates immersive technologies with problem-based learning.
Interactions for language learning in and around virtual worlds
I’m adding some research on Virtual Worlds (VWs), which are still actively used in education and on which we can find interesting studies that, in some cases, can be a good starting point for studies in VR for education.
This is a special issue of ReCALL, collecting papers on how different types of interactions in VWs can afford or constrain learning.
Language learning through conversation envisioning in virtual reality: a sociocultural approach
Again, an initial qualitative study on the use of what the authors define as VR for FL learning and intercultural awareness. The platform used in the study (VRCE = Virtual Reality Conversation Envisioning) appears more like a 3D social virtual world than a Virtual Reality environment.
Lanier, M., Waddell, T. F., Elson, M., Tamul, D. J., Ivory, J. D., & Przybylski, A. (2019). Virtual reality check: Statistical power, reported results, and the validity of research on the psychology of virtual reality and immersive environments. Computers in Human Behavior.
Systematic review of empirical research on Virtual Reality within the Social Sciences domain, including 61 articles reporting 1122 statistical tests evaluating data collection practices, statistical reporting and data availability from 2002 to 2018 across 29 respected journals. The authors note high error rates in statistical reporting across the tests with low data transparency being a factor.
* Presents solid research related to publication bias, questionable research practices and challenges in VR research
* Highlights problems with data collection and analysis in VR research as it relates to p-value
* The study provides broad and general evaluations across VR in social sciences and may have limited use about VR effects
* The work is limited to virtual reality only and does not examine XR, MR or AR – which is likely an issue given the interchangeability of the terms and misunderstanding across the academic literature about the meaning of the terms
* There is no specifics on issues that plague VR such as simulation sickness, novelty effect, consistency of VR stimuli and interactive constraints
* Sampling method is limited to PsycNET and Communication and Mass Media Complete – which may not represent the whole VR landscape – especially the work in HCI, AEC and Gaming studies
MacQuarrie, A., & Steed, A. (2017, March). Cinematic virtual reality: Evaluating the effect of display type on the viewing experience for panoramic video. In 2017 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR) (pp. 45-54). IEEE.
A between-groups experiment of 63 participants was conducted between a VR HMD, custom (SurroundVideo) system and Standard TV to watch panoramic (360) videos. Measures included spatial awareness, narrative engagement, enjoyment, memory, fear, attention, and a viewer’s concern about missing something. Results indicated that the HMD offered a significant benefit in terms of enjoyment and spatial awareness.
Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning gains
Very interesting review of studies on AR for education. I am copying here the highlights of the paper:
” – We conducted a meta-analysis on the impact of Augmented Reality in education.
– Sixty-four quantitative published journal papers written from 2010 to 2018 were coded and analyzed.
– Augmented Reality has a medium effect on students’ learning gains.
– Bachelor students are the students who benefit most from Augmented Reality systems.
– Engineering is the field of education that most benefits from Augmented Reality systems.”
Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning gains
Mixed Reality: A New Dimension of Work
Microsoft partnered with Harvard Business Review Analytic Services to examine the unique
role and importance of mixed reality within the context of the modern workplace
across a range of industries, from manufacturing, engineering, and construction to
retail, defense, and education. This report explores the opportunity organizations
have to create more intuitive, immersive, and empowering experiences for their
employees, in order to better serve their customers in this increasingly digital age.
Multilingual immersive communication technology: repurposing virtual reality for Italian teaching
The paper reports on a pilot study that looks into repurposing an existing scenario-based VR asset for health sciences with an aim to use the resulting VR environment for FL learning. I find the authors’ comment in the conclusions to be of great interest for future research of this kind “The project proves that it is possible to repurpose VR assets into language learning resources by replacing the audio and written texts with other languages. […] More work would be involved to change the body language and gestures associated with a particular culture as this would involve rerecording the motion capture.” (p. 10)
Pedagogy of Productive Failure: Navigating the Challenges of Integrating VR into the Classroom
(I do hope I haven’t shared this one before. I checked and can’t see it …)
Very good study on a digital humanities research project that introduced VR in a class with the aim to foster creative fluency in divergent thinking. The academic team’s reflections on these first steps in the use of VR and the issues associated are framed in phenomenological philosophy and critical theory. Definitely a worth read.
Perceptual Limits of Optical See-Through Visors for Augmented Reality Guidance of Manual Tasks
The focal length of available optical see-through (OST) head-mounted displays (HMDs) is at least 2 m therefore, during manual tasks, the user eye cannot keep in focus both the virtual and real content at the same time. Another perceptual limitation is related to the vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC), this latter being present in binocular vision only. This paper investigates the effect of incorrect focus cues on the user performance, visual comfort and workload during the execution of augmented reality (AR) guided manual task with one of the most advanced OST HMD, the Microsoft HoloLens. Methods: An experimental study was designed to investigate the performance of 20 subjects in a connect-the-dots task, with and without the use of AR. The following tests were planned: AR guided monocular and binocular; Naked-eye monocular and binocular. Each trial was analyzed to evaluate the accuracy in connecting dots; NASA Task Load Index and Likert questionnaires were used to assess the workload and the visual comfort. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the workload, and in the perceived comfort between the AR guided binocular and monocular test. User performances were significantly better during the Naked eye tests. No statistically significant differences in performances were found in the monocular and binocular tests. The maximum error in AR tests was 5.9 mm. Conclusion: Even if there is a growing interest in using commercial OST-HMD, for guiding high-precision manual tasks, attention should be paid to the limitations of the available technology not designed for the peripersonal space.
Perspectives on how to evaluate augmented reality technology tools for education: a systematic review
A systematic literature review on the effect of AR on the learning process. The authors reviewed 45 journal and conference articles from 2009 to 2017.
– AR is effective for increasing students’ learning outcomes, motivation and attitudes.
– AR can promote independence, student-centred approaches, situated learning.
– AR has unique affordances for the learning process.
– Future AR studies should consider multiple metrics (qualitative and quantitative) to have a better overview of the effect of AR on the learning process.
Implications for future research:
– Future studies might consider involving the teacher as an instructional designer more than a passive actor in educational interventions with AR.
– There is a lack of research on the impact of AR on very young learners.
– Interventions with AR apps should be in line with established educational theories.
– Consider the instructional design of AR applications according to the students’ needs.
– Future studies should be more longitudinal in nature.
– Future AR applications should provide mechanisms so that teachers and students can create or add augmented content (authoring tool).
Power, Gender, Participation. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333443235_Participating_on_More_Equal_Terms_Power_Gender_and_Participation_in_a_Virtual_World_Learning_Scenario (Deutschmann, Steinvall, Wang, 2019)
Chapter from “Emerging Technologies in Virtual Learning Environments”
Abstract: “This chapter investigates the potential effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The basic research enquiry addresses whether the relative anonymity afforded by virtual world environments has an effect on established power structures, thereby empowering relatively powerless language learners to more active participation than would be the case in more traditional learning set-ups. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions, and complemented with student reflections. The results show that the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. The invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. No major gender differences in participation were found. There was, however, considerable individual variation. “
Putting AR/VR to work: Taking the complexity out of home improvement
Research on use of VR in-store for customers to practice using equipment. “We have conducted VR projects to help customers learn new skills like tiling a bathroom and test new power-tools like hedge trimmers. Through these pilots, we found that combining multiple senses (sight, touch, sound) resulted in 36 percent better recall of project steps for do-it-yourself projects than through video alone.” This is a great source because it compares VR to video for the same learning—those are strongly comparable resources. Implications: XR research always needs to be pitted up against it’s closest cognitive competitor (not, for example, comparing XR against textbook learning). I wish Lowe’s had disclosed the data— I have a request in to this page’s author to see if there is more information publicly available.
Report on Enterprise XR
You have to sign up to get this free report, but it’s a useful appraisal of the hope and the hype for XR in various enterprises.
Representations of Novice Conceptions with Learner-Generated Augmentation: A Framework for Curriculum Design with Augmented Reality (Lim et al, 2018)
The authors look at one of the affordances of AR, namely the possibility to reify an object using an AR app, in a study of a group of chemistry students. They draw a framework for designing what they term Learner-Generated Augmentation tasks.
Research trends in the use of augmented reality in science education: Content and bibliometric mapping analysis
A systematic review of 62 articles published between 2013 to 2018 and a bibliometric analysis of 143 articles.
– Recent articles published in AR for science education focused more on investigating students’ knowledge and achievement.
– The most common variables that are considered in the studies in AR for science learning are: learning achievement, motivation and attitudes.
– Mobile applications using marker-based AR are more common. There are few applications developed with Kinect, location-based AR or wearable devices.
– A high proportion of the articles used quantitative methods.
– The most common data collection methods are: achievement tests, questionnaires, surveys and interviews.
– Convenience sampling is the most common method for sampling followed by random sampling and purposive sampling.
– Most of the studies considered students from 5th to 8th grade followed by students from 1 to 4th grade, graduate students and secondary students.
Implications for future research:
– Further studies should focus on cognitive issues, interaction and collaborative activities in terms of variables beyond motivation, achievement and attitudes.
– Develop new applications with other technologies like Kinect, internet of things to determine their contribution to science learning with AR.
– Explore other types of AR such as location-based AR and marker-less AR for science learning.
– More qualitative studies should be conducted.
– Pre-school education is an area that deserves more interventions with AR.
Second Life in Higher Education: Assessing the potential for and the barriers to deploying virtual worlds in learning and teaching.
British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(3), 414-426. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.00952.x
As a 2009 article, this is a little outdated now. But it provides a nice survey of overall thoughts (as in the title, affordances and hazards) about the use of virtual worlds in education.
Shin, D. (2018). Empathy and embodied experience in virtual environment: To what extent can virtual reality stimulate empathy and embodied experience?. Computers in Human Behavior.
Study investigates user experience of stories in virtual reality – including the development and testing of a VR experience model that integrates presence, flow, empathy and embodiment. The authors highlight how immersion influences experience and the correlation of personal traits and immersion. The conclusion is that users view and accept VR stories by the way they envisage and intend to experience them.
Steed, A., Pan, Y., Zisch, F., & Steptoe, W. (2016, March). The impact of a self-avatar on cognitive load in immersive virtual reality. In 2016 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR) (pp. 67-76). IEEE.
Importance of self-avatar within immersive virtual reality systems. Participants were asked to memorise pairs of letters, perform a spatial rotation exercise and then recall the pairs of letters. A between-subject factor experiment was used and participants were assigned to an avatar or no avatar category. In the avatar group a within-subject factor was used in relation to keeping their hands still or not still. The authors found that participants who both had an avatar and were allowed to move their hands had significantly higher recall when compared to the other conditions. It was argued that an active self-avatar may alleviate mental load.
Students Develop Virtual Reality Apps
Students’ attitudes toward high-immersion virtual reality assisted language learning
VR and FL learning. A pilot study on students’ attitudes to Virtual Reality Assisted Language Learning (VRALL)
Systematic review on the effectiveness of augmented reality applications in medical training
A literature review on augmented reality training in the medical field. Study indicates early evidence of impact on learning outcomes via face, content and construct validity but there are no studies that measure concurrent and predictive validity.
The Co-design of Hand Rehabilitation Exercises for Multiple Sclerosis Using Hand Tracking System
Exempler on use of hand tracking for rehabilitation
The Effect of Augmented Reality Applications in the Learning Process: A Meta-Analysis Study
A meta-analysis of the effect of AR in the learning process from 16 experimental studies published from 2007 to 2017 in SSCI journals. The meta-analysis was published in 2018.
– The effect size of AR on academic success is 0.508 (medium effect size). This result confirms the positive effect of AR on the learning process.
– The effect size of AR on the field of Natural sciences (0.562) is larger than the effect size on the field of social sciences (0.409). However, the difference between the two effect sizes is not significant. This means that the field of education does not affect the impact of AR.
– Most of the studies in the meta-analysis were conducted in the field of natural sciences (75%) followed by social sciences (25%) and the predominant target level was primary education followed by high school (31,2%).
– There is no a significant difference between the effect sizes on the target level of education: primary education (0.303), high school (0.623), undergraduate (0.839).
– There is a significant difference on the effect size depending on the type of device used. Larger effect sizes seem to be achieved with mobile devices.
The effect of Augmented Reality Technology on middle school students’ achievements and attitudes towards science education
Dilara Sahin, Rabia Meryem Yilmaz (2020). “The effect of Augmented Reality Technology on middle school students’ achievements and attitudes towards science education”. Computers & Education, Volume 144.
This paper reports a quasi-experimental study with 100 middle-school 7th grade students using AR and traditional methods for learning about the solar system in a science course.
– Student achievement is higher when students use AR: Students in the experimental group (those who used AR for learning about the solar system) obtained better scores (higher learning achievement) when compared to those who used traditional materials (control group).
– Students using AR have better attitudes towards the science course when they use an AR application.
– Students showed willingness to use AR applications in the future and did not show axiety while using the AR application.
– There is a positive and significant correlation between the academic achievement and the attitudes towards the science course.
Evidence-based design principles:
– Increasing the engagement with the learning materials with AR might increase the students’ learning achievement.
– The novelty of the technology might increase the students’ motivation when students use the AR technology for the first time.
– AR applications for science creates positive attitudes towards the course and increase students’ achievement.
– AR applications are affected by factors such as light, camera quality and other physical factors.
– Explore knowledge retention in the long term.
The Sense of Embodiment in Virtual Reality
What does it feel like to own, to control, and to be inside a body? The multidimensional nature of this experience together with the continuous presence of one’s biological body, render both theoretical and experimental approaches problematic. Nevertheless, exploitation of immersive virtual reality has allowed a reframing of this question to whether it is possible to experience the same sensations towards a virtual body inside an immersive virtual environment as toward the biological body, and if so, to what extent. The current paper addresses these issues by referring to the Sense of Embodiment (SoE). Due to the conceptual confusion around this sense, we provide a working definition which states that SoE consists of three subcomponents: the sense of self-location, the sense of agency, and the sense of body ownership. Under this proposed structure, measures and experimental manipulations reported in the literature are reviewed and related challenges are outlined. Finally, future experimental studies are proposed to overcome those challenges, toward deepening the concept of SoE and enhancing it in virtual application.
This article does not address education directly but it addresses a concept of value when building these type of technology solutions. Every element that can be leveraged should and the sense of ones representation in VR and how that is developed is very important.
Towards the Development of a Virtual Reality Simulator with Haptic Force Feedback for Training in Stereotactic Brain Biopsies
Neurosurgery training traditionally follows the apprenticeship model of learning using supervised ‘hands-on’ skill acquisition in the operating theatre. With technological advancements in computer-generated images and interactive technologies, haptic-based virtual reality simulators have been shown to provide successful workbenches for realistic training in surgical procedures. The use of haptic force feedback in virtual reality simulates the tactile properties of tissues and surgical instrumentation manipulation, which increases the degree of realism for the ‘operating surgeon’ and enables the acquisition of surgical skills in a safe virtual learning environment. A pilot study was conducted whereby anatomical structures were modelled from medical datasets using segmentation algorithms and modelling platforms and applied as three-dimensional content to a haptic-based virtual learning environment of a stereotactic brain biopsy procedure. This has seen the creation of a prototype haptic-based virtual reality simulator which, with further development, may complement traditional neurosurgery training in stereotactic brain biopsies.
Using Games to Teach Support Design
The article focuses on the challenges in teaching support design to rock engineers. It then proposes the creation of a VR game to teach some of the skills as well as exercise the acquired skills. The prototype is currently in development.
Maritz, J. A., & de Beer, K. (2018, January). Using Games to Teach Support Design. In ISRM International Symposium-10th Asian Rock Mechanics Symposium. International Society for Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering.
Virtual Reality for Health Professions Education: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration
Virtual Replicas for Remote Assistance in Virtual and Augmented Reality
In many complex tasks, a remote subject-matter expert may need to assist a local user to guide actions on objects in the local user’s environment. However, effective spatial referencing and action demonstration in a remote physical environment can be challenging. We introduce two approaches that use Virtual Reality (VR) or Augmented Reality (AR) for the remote expert, and AR for the local user, each wearing a stereo head-worn display. Both approaches allow the expert to create and manipulate virtual replicas of physical objects in the local environment to refer to parts of those physical objects and to indicate actions on them. This can be especially useful for parts that are occluded or difficult to access. In one approach, the expert points in 3 D to portions of virtual replicas to annotate them. In another approach, the expert demonstrates actions in 3 D by manipulating virtual replicas, supported by constraints and annotations. We performed a user study of a 6D O F alignment task, a key operation in many physical task domains, comparing both approaches to an approach in which the expert uses a 2D tablet-based drawing system similar to ones developed for prior work on remote assistance. The study showed the 3D demonstration approach to be faster than the others. In addition, the 3D pointing approach was faster than the 2D tablet in the case of a highly trained expert.
Virtual Technologies to Develop Visual-Spatial Ability in Engineering Students
In university engineering careers, space skills stand out as an essential aspect to carry out tasks related to the profession. Differences in their development influence the understanding and assimilation of graphically represented contents. Different efforts are reported supporting the development of students ‘ability to understand spatial relationships in 3 dimensions knowing their impact on students’ academic success. In Spain, for example, the development of spatial visualization is included in the curriculum of all engineering degrees ‘as a core competence that is necessary to develop in students due to their significant priority in engineering studies’ (p. 443).
The study reported by Roca-González et al (2017) focuses on assessing the improvement in spatial ability, understood as the ability to mentally manage objects and their parts in a 2 and 3 dimensional space. The authors argue that students use visual thinking in engineering graphics as a means of communication between them and as a personal tool for reasoning. In their study they propose a framework to characterize this spatial ability taking into account 3 components: spatial relationship, spatial visualization and spatial orientation. The spatial relationship refers to mental speed to rotate simple forms, compare and recognize them in another position. Spatial visualization is the ability to mentally manage complex visual information to obtain a correct solution. Spatial orientation is the physical and mental ability of orientation in a space. It should be noted that his study takes into account previous research results that point out the difference between imagining spatial transformations of objects and imagining the spatial transformation of oneself. In this sense, the ability to imagine a change of perspective, where one adopts a frame of reference with respect to the environment, is a different ability from imagining the result of a change in the position of objects in the environment while maintaining Your original perspective.
Virtual Technologies Trends in Education
Reported Advantages of VR/AR in the article:
– VR/AR technologies are effective for increasing students’ learning outcomes and motivation.
– VR/AR technologies foster collaboration and social skills.
– VR/AR technologies improve students’ psychomotor and cognitive skills
– VR is motivating and students have positive attitudes towards this technology.
– VR grabs students’ attention because the technology is exciting and because this technology allows to see phenomena that is difficult to see in the real environment. It is useful for explaining abstract ideas.
– VR/AR promote active learning because it allows autonomous exploration of the learning content and allows that students learn by doing because the technology increases the interaction with the learning content.
– The real-time interaction with AR/VR allows students to see the results instantly so that they can make decisions to reach their learning goals.
Reported limitations of AR/VR in the paper:
– Some students might not be competent with the use of these immersive technologies.
– These new technologies do not imply a pedagogical innovation so it is important to explore the affordances of current pedagogies with the immersive technologies.
Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”
(the article is published with Wiley in Metaphilosophy at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-9973.2012.01755.x)
I find Søraker’s philosophical approach illuminating. It can help us see XR as part of a wider dimension (see intravirtual and extravirtual consequences).
VR/AR Association White Paper Virtual and Augmented Reality Best Practices for Education
CHAPTER 1 Future Work Skills, Reimagining Digital Education
CHAPTER 2 VR/AR Educational Ecosystem
2.1 Disruptive Innovation in Education
2.2 VR & AR Definitions
2.4 VR/AR Educational Platforms for Beginners
CHAPTER 3 VR/AR in Education
3.1 Innovation in Education
3.2 Barriers to entry
3.3 Benefits and Values of VR/AR in Education
Chapter 4 VR/AR Educational Content
4.1 Types of VR Content
4.2 Instructional Design and Storytelling in VR Digital Content
4.3 Video 360o as VR Digital Education Content
CHAPTER 5 VR/AR Educational Resources
CHAPTER 6 Case Studies VR/AR in Education
Case Study 1 Learning Resource Centers in MOE Schools (United Arab Emirates).
Case Study 2 How teacher ́s use VR to enhance students’ Learning Experience. Stow-Munroe Falls School District (Stow OH).
Case Study 3 Coding in VR. Toronto (Canada). Julie Smithson partner MetaVRse.
Case Study 4 Incorporating VR in the Accounting Classroom. National Louis University (Chicago)
Case Study 5 JESS Dubai. Steve Bambury, Head of Digital Learning and Innovation across JESS Dubai.
Case Study 6 Rutgers Preparatory School in Somerset, New Jersey, United States.
Case Study 7 Implementing a VR creation lab in high school. Chad Lewis (Tampa Preparatory School).
Case Study 8 The Future of Education. Lethbridge College (Alberta, Canada). Mike McCready.
Case Study 9 Alan Smithson (CEO/Co-founder of MetaVRse) in Rumii
Case Study 10 Pacha’s Pajamas. Dave Room (CEO, BALANCE Edutainment)
Case Study 11 Schools of the Future. Miramadrid School. (Spain) Carlos J. Ochoa (CEO ONE Digital Consulting)
CHAPTER 7 Conclusions
VRoCKs Hackathon Into Video 2018
VRoKCs, a program to bring VR/AR learning to K-12 students in and around Kansas City is excited to invite you for VRoKCs Fall 2018 hackathon at UMKC Bloch Venture Hub. At the hackathon high school students will develop immersive applications for the presented problem. Professional developers will mentor and guide students as they learn various VR/AR development tools and software. This hackathon is a great opportunity to challenge students with real world problems and scenarios, learning from the professionals. At the same time teaching them important skills of critical thinking, collaboration, and communication.
NOTE: This event participation is open only for K-12 students participating in the VRoKCs Program, more details – vrokcs.org or email us at [email protected]
Why Women Don’t Like Social Virtual Reality
A study of the experiences of women in virtual reality.
“The social cues that you would normally have about someone being creepy or safe weren’t there…When people got close to me I felt the same as if someone got close to me in real life.”
Outlaw, J., & Duckles, B. (2017). Why Women Don’t Like Social Virtual Reality: A Study of Safety, Usability, and Self-Expression in Social VR. Portland, OR: The Extended Mind. Retrieved from: https://extendedmind.io/social-vr
XR- Crossing the Horizon together: Scanning, transforming, and sharing “What Works” in Immersive XR (Richter, J.)
This is a recording of Jonathan Richter’s keynote at the latest Virtual Worlds Best Practices in Education conference, in April 2019. It is published in JOVS (https://jovs.urockcliffe.press/wp-content/uploads/JOVS-2019-10-01.pdf ).